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UPA HAS CONDUCTED TRAINING FOR CITIZEN OF MALAYSIA

Testing of English-speaking respondents has already become common for polygraph examiners of the Ukrainian Association of polygraph examiners. Basically, these are staff checks (pre-employment screenings and existing personnel checks), as well as checks on the topic of marital fidelity.


     Yet, this time foreigners expressed their interest in our polygraph examination courses. Our recent graduate is a 52-year-old resident of Malaysia – Dominic Chan Wen Shun.

Домінік Чан Вен Шун проходить курси поліграфологів

The training, which was conducted in person, had its own specificities – by that time the student already took the courses of polygraph examiners and had his own polygraph – Lafayette.


Despite the fact that the polygraph examiner already had a certain theoretical basis and experience in conducting polygraph tests, introduction to a different approach in conducting of polygraph examinations turned out to be quite interesting and useful.

    Thus, in contrast to the Methodology of comparison questions, which is usually used by American colleagues, the participant was introduced to the Method of identifying hidden information that has been successfully applying in Ukraine over the past 20 years.

Also, a detailed study of the psychophysiological processes that occur in a human body, and the results of which we observe on polygrams turned out to be a big surprise for Dominic.


     Practical trainings were held with the help of a Ukrainian-made polygraph Rubicon, in which, unlike the polygraph Lafayette, the major emphasis is placed on completely different channels – SGR, PPG. Eventually, Dominic decided to purchase this polygraph, saying that working on it is much more convenient.

After all, methods for detecting pharmacological counteraction (using channels of SGR and PPG) have become a real revelation for the polygraph examiner.

A particular attention was paid to the development of skills in installation and working with the Sheriff software, which, by the way, has an English interface option.


     During the introduction to such polygraphs as RUBICON, LAFAYETTE, AXCITON and RIF, the listener was notably interested in the sensor for assessing the psychological component of the RIF polygraph, which allows assessing the psychological state of the person being examined.

Навчання перевіркам на поліграфах Крис, Lafayette, Axciton та Рубікон


      It is noteworthy that in addition to the implementation of knowledge acquired during training into professional occupation, in the future it will be presented in a scientific work on a comparative analysis of various methods of lie detection, which Dominic is currently working on, traveling around different countries in search of various techniques.
Поліграфологи ВАП з іноземцем

Група експертів ВАП, що займалась тренінгом з Домініком: Вікторія Тюркан, Тетяна Шевченко, Володимир Ведмідь


Поліграфолог Володимир Ведмідь видає сертифікат поліграфолога

Citizen of Malaysia Dominic Chan Wen Shun and Executive Director of the UPA Volodymyr Vedmid


P.S. After Dominic returned home, we received a letter from him in which he decided to share his impressions of the trip and study, as well as some advice to future students. Below is the text of the letter.


Preamble

Привіт Україно (Hello Ukraine)!!! My name is Dominic Chan, and I am from Malaysia. My interests in polygraphy comes from the fact of my experiences in various fields of interviewing whether it’s for recruitment, counselling of employees, investigation, or interrogation of offenders when I was a law enforcement official. It’s always been the source of communication as a resourceful way of determining answers, guilt, or conscience. However, it’s never enough.

Despite American influence via their numerous films and TV series on the use of polygraph, I never once thought it’s an instrument to determine the truths. As we all know, the West like to make life exciting for us ordinary citizens. It’s not until I paid attention in graduate school that I started more of my reading about the polygraph on its the history, psychology, theories, and its importance. As a postgraduate research PhD candidate, I was astounded with the numerous techniques of detecting deception. And even back then when I was an undergraduate in the West I was unaware of all these techniques.

Polygraph isn’t the only technique to determine deception and there are numerous today, in the West, for example, the use facial recognition and gait instances, voice stress analysis (VSA), fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), EEG (electroencephalogram) and in India, brain electrical oscillation signatures (BEOS) and narcoanalysis. Each of them has its merits but my interests fall on the polygraph, as it’s the most trusted, available, and an instrument that’s easily understood and use by many practitioners in the field of law enforcement, human resources, and even the courts.

Despite this journey of mine is about learning and training on the polygraph in Kyiv, Ukraine, I’d like to begin my journey with you, readers, who are interested in my pursuit. And for those of you who wish to study in Ukraine, I would like to offer my insights of my planed journey from Malaysia to Ukraine. But before I being my journey below, let me express my gratitude to the CEO of the Ukrainian Polygraph Association (UPA), Dr. Tatyana Shevchenko, Ms. Viktoria Turkan, and all the great and good people at UPA, Спасибо (Spasibo)!


Graphing My Journey

After meeting my supervisor who happened to be the Associate Professor and Deputy Dean of Postgraduate Studies at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, at the National University of Malaysia (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia), I sat at the faculty lounge and pondered. I was relishing the thought of filtering my assessments of the polygraph with various other techniques of instrumentations.  Earlier in 2019, I completed training with Akbar & Associates on the LX 5000 Lafayette Polygraph instrumentation.  The Lafayette instrumentation is a popular American polygraph system that consists of 5 basic instrumentations consolidated with a computerized system that consists of a 9-channel amplification that’s connected to a desktop or laptop. The LX 5000 presented a very thorough understanding of the niches of deception and truths, however, I felt the American way of polygraphy is thoughtfully saturated, in order to preserve ethical considerations and the proper use of the technology. I felt there could be other places in the world which could be more perceptive in the use of the technology and perhaps upgrade to instances where deception is better understood and the detection techniques more refined.

With that, I began a thorough search in China and Russia because I am interested in another way of doing things altogether. I am sure that somewhere these countries will do things more differently, not because of their histories but I do know that these countries are perhaps more thorough in their ideals if not, to get to the bottom of the ‘truth’.  I also understood that China and Russia are serious ‘misfits’ when it comes to human rights.

As the search became uneventful, I decided to just try out one of the apps like Facebook, Twitter, or even YouTube. I decided to reverse the order and decided to try YouTube as I thought YouTube would give me nothing. Low and behold, immediately, it pointed me to a few episodes of a show (an Ukrainian Talk Show) about using polygraph to prove infidelity. I was dumbfounded and immediately I began to search for Ukrainian polygraphy. And there it was, the Ukrainian Polygraph Association (UPA).


I wrote a brief email to the UPA and hoping to get a response, and a few days later, I received an email response from Mr. Volodymyr Vedmid.

He suggested about a 2-3 weeks training at his office, the fees for the training, the cost of purchasing the RUBICON polygraph equipment, and he would engage someone who’s fluent enough to converse and taught me on the theories and instrumentations in English. After a couple emails with Volodymyr, he deliberated that in the near future, I would communicate with Dr. Tatyana Shevchenko.

Dr. Tatyana is such a patient person and she assisted me on my passport permit processes; for us Malaysians, we don’t require visas, however, we do need a permit to stay longer than 15 days in Ukraine. She basically guided and provided me with all the suggestions on the expectations, residential requirements, etc. However, despite her suggestions, I made my own arraignments like plane tickets, accommodation, public transportation maps (that became very handy), researched about the various e-Hailing solutions and apps in Kyiv, etc. If you are coming to Ukraine, please install a language app as well, and ensure that the app not only translates everything in Ukrainian, but more importantly, into Russian. If you are travelling in late fall (like October or November) or in winter, make sure you have sufficient warm clothing. If you have never been in very, very cold weather, make sure you prepare some necessary medicines as well like paracetamol, cold and influenza medicines. Before boarding the plane to Ukraine, make sure you have your visa in your passport or those that don’t require visas, make sure a copy of the permit for stay is printed out, as the immigration will definitely want to look at the hard copy.

Upon arrival, at Boryspil International Airport, there’s direct bus from the International Airport to Vokzalna Train or Metro Station. It costs 130 ₴ (or US $5.50) or you can take the express train which will be costly. I didn’t take the express and it’s perhaps between US $10 – US $15. It’s more comfortable than taking the bus because its less cramping.

Before you even board the bus or before you come to Ukraine, make sure you have sufficient Euros or US dollars. Most other international currencies are not recognized and I have used with ease just exchanging dollars into Ukrainian hryvnia. And before you spend anything at the airport, make sure you have exchanged the dollars you carry with you into hryvnia. Many places like food counters, bus ticket counters, public transportation rides, etc. do not accept any foreign currencies other than Ukrainian hryvnia. However, if you are at an international hotel, Euros and US dollars are accepted currencies. But bear in mind, exchange rate can be dire because these places know your desperation, and hence, they can defy the true exchange rates.

After checking into your hostel or place of abode for the duration, make sure you have a local SIM card. The local SIM card will allow you to communicate locally, and surf the internet on your cellphone or mobile without incurring additional charges. The best SIM card, is KyivSTAR in terms of charges, usage, and clarity if you want to make international calls later on.


One of the principles, I follow is, if I go to any city, I must have a feel and vibe of the city.

Hence, before the day of the start of the training, I explore and discover how best to get to the place of training. The office that’s located on 10, Shovkovychna Street, is easily accessible from either Khreschatyk or Maidan Nezalezhnosti Metro Stations. Initially, I didn’t know and exited at Klovska Metro and I had to make stops here and there to climb up the treacherous Shovkovychna Street.

After taking a look at the office, I proceeded down to the other side of Shovkovychna Street towards Sadova Street. At the corner of Sadova and Shovkovychna Streets, there is a very wonderful Croissant shop, that’s called “Croissant Street Hub”. Almost every day I showed up at the shop because some of the patrons speak relatively good English, and they are such are cheerful bunch.  Sometimes, it’s not about the food but importantly the relationship and the friendliness of the shop.

After having a croissant snack, I proceeded to explore the city and later I found out the wonders of Kyiv before making my first contact with Dr. Tatyana.


Training to ‘Graph

The first order of my training day, is to be punctual or early. As I stepped in, Dr. Tatyana and Julia were there to greet me. As soon as I settled in, Tatyana started me with the lessons. After our pleasantries, she described to me about my lesson plans, practical training on the use of the Rubicon, the evaluations and examinations. Despite my lesson plans are informal, I did explain to her that I would be in Kyiv for a duration of three weeks.

As I was the only foreign student ever to enlist for a training program in Ukraine, obviously, their manuals are all written in Russian. In order to relay what was written in the manuals and to translate them properly for my understanding, that’s where Dr. Tatyana’s role as not only a person who imparts theoretical knowledge for my understanding, but also to ensure that the language imparted to me was understandable and I don’t have any problems misunderstanding or difficulty in absolving the concepts. She’d make sure that I understood what was imparted to me. But of course, it’s my responsibility to digest what was relayed, hence, reviewing the daily lessons was very crucial.

On the first day of my lectured learning, I have learned more than what I read. Dr. Tatyana knew I was bombarded with a lot of concepts and the understanding of the use of the Ukrainian system. She drew on what was important and left out the unimportant. Despite I was let go just before lunchtime, I was drained and exhausted. Even after the first day, I was initially worried whether I would make through before the evaluations and examinations.


The second day, became more urgent as the importance of understanding the various graphs introduced, dawned on me.

The most important thing that’s highlighted is the fact that the strengths of the graphs depend on the general, mental, physical and the potential ability to answer the questions brightly, confidently, and without hindrance, or aforethought. If the intention is to hide the truth, then the examinee is on a slippery slope to want to lie, cheat, or deceive. In order to prevent such measures the questionnaires employ should be clear, concise, precise, and consenting to an extent.

Of course the strength of the polygraph also comes with the environment setup, the state of mind of the individual must be clear, i.e., clear of intoxication from whatever recreational drugs or alcohol. Even too much caffeinated drinks are bad for the individual. It’s also not ideal when an individual had a heavy breakfast or lunch as he can be sleepy during the examination. This can obstruct the attention process as the individual will fall asleep or fall into a comfortable trance. Some may even stop breathing, a condition that’s called ‘apnea’. Fat people with a shortness of breath may fall into ‘apnea’ if they have a heavy meal. And this can also be confirmed via the narrowing of the PPG.

Some individuals with very strict religious backgrounds may want to pray or meditate; I bring this up because in Malaysia Muslims pray five times a day. So if an examination is scheduled in the afternoon just after lunch, it’s important to gauge his or her responses whether he had prayed or whether he wanted to do so.

Another important thing to always be a good polygraph examiner is to be conscious about the examinee’s health. If the individual is coughing, it will definitely make the pneumatic (breathing) graphs looked jaded and incurred depths on the baseline. Despite some systems like the Lafayette can enable the examiner to indicate ‘coughs’, this, again will be fruitless if it’s a symptomatic cough, and this can affect the whole examination. However, if it’s not a symptomatic cough but an activity to deceive then this is different. The deceiver will try his luck to exert a cough if he finds the relevant question daunting. The good thing about the UPA technique is that, examinees can be examined on a rephrased question, and if he will try his luck to cough again, then he’s trying to counter his responses.

It’s very important to examine the temperature of office and the examination room. If the room becomes cold, it will be a disadvantage as cold hands and fingers may have the effect of the polygraph examination. Sometimes a cold room will also be a bias affinity as some examinees can allege that they are being examined in a cold room and thus the cold affected their sinuses, and hence, sniffing and coughing. Therefore, we shouldn’t have any of these untoward and needless excuse.

Cold, clammy, stained, and dirty hands are not ideal for polygraph examination. If the hands are tainted and cold, it will greatly affect the GSR and also affect the PPG. According to Mayo Clinic, Minnesota, USA, blood pressure may increase for most of us in winter cold than in the hot summer. In winter, the blood vessels may narrow, hence, the increase in the blood pressure. If that’s the case and someone coming in from a very cold day, it’s best to ask the person to sit still in the warm office for a while. Also washing hands in warm water will do good. The washing of hands not only reduces the cold in the hands but also clean the hands from any unwanted chemicals or substances that may produce non-justifiable readings and odd graphs from the GSR.


The Polygraph System: The RUBICON

The system itself consists of the 7 main channels with the addition of 2 channels. The difference in the system itself is that the RUBICON has two more extra (basic) channels. The system weighs its importance on the: 1) Upper chest breathing pneumograph apparatus (Pneumatic Breathing 1 (RS1)); 2) Lower diaphragmatic breathing pneumograph apparatus (Pneumatic Breathing 2 (RS2)); 3) Galvanic Skin Responses (GSR); 4) Photoplethysmograph (PPG); 5) Arterial Reaction Pressure (ARP); 6) Movement pads measuring tremors (TRM); and Voices recordings via microphone (MCP)).

The difference between the American systems whether it’s the Lafayette, Limestone Acxiton, etc., is that the Americans recently implemented PPG input and measurements, but only if candidates are properly trained in using the apparatus. Thus far, PPG is only an option but not a requirement.

The other stark difference is that the Americans use of the ARP is significantly different. For them the cardiovascular detection is very important in addition to pneumatic chest and thoracic breathing apparatus. In terms of the cardiovascular equipment, it’s a blood pressure monitor called the sphygmomanometer. It’s a similar device used by physicians and nurses to measure a patient’s blood pressure and heart rhythms. This device consists of a pumping bulb gauge and an inflatable cuff. Hence, it’s very important that the cuff that’s strap (on a person’s arm) and the pressure enhance to tighten on the arm is legitimately correct and not overtightening without pumping up too much pressure to ‘hurt’ the arm.

Moreover, the pneumatic tubes emplaced on the chest have to be correctly established in order to get the right graphs on the monitors. When I was training with Akbar & Associates, I was advised to adjust the pneumatic straps and not to adjust excessively from the Lafayette polygraph software, hence, it’s very important to do the pneumatic straps correctly.

The Americans also introduced the movement monitors. The pads are similar to the RUBICON. I was never taught on the Lafayette system on the movement, hence, I cannot discuss more about the Lafayette system. But the system I bought, i.e., the LX 6 does come with a movement monitor.


Both Rubicon and Lafayette do come with polygraph chairs.

The Americans have a piece of movement pad that’s placed on the floor and examinees have to place their feet on it. Basically, this piece of surveillance pad is an apparatus more to counter movements from the waist down and also any untoward activity that may try to deceive the polygraph system

The Lafayette and other American systems do not have a microphone for voice monitoring.

Lastly, in the West video recordings are prohibited. The reason, the polygraph results cannot be introduced in Courts, and polygraph test is only an added arsenal in the field of investigation or discovery. UPA staff did advise me to install a video camera to secure to my laptop for recording.


The Americans consideration on the GSR or Electro-Dermal Activity (EDA) is secondary. The Lafayette’s considerations for the GSR must be taken into consideration with the other measurements, foremostly, the pneumatic and cardiovascular consistencies or inconsistencies.

The Ukrainian polygraph system places importance on the GSR and PPG.

The Rubicon GSR requires the understanding of two main areas and they are the: 1) ‘Phasic’ Phase and 2) ‘Tonic’ Phase.

The ‘tonic’ phase is utterly different from the ‘phasic’ phase. It determines our body’s physiological awareness by displaying certain numbers at the bottom of the graphs’ screen on the Rubicon software. There’s no rule of thumb what’s the exact normal figure, however, a normal person shouldn’t have any figures below 50K and above 350K on a silver GSR apparatus that wraps around the second and fourth fingers. Likewise, if the apparatus is gold plated, it should fall between 300K and 600K. The gold plated GSRs have better conductivity and as such it tends to be more sensitive.

Now the reason it cannot fall below 50K and into negative values, indicates that the person’s hyperactive, extreme nervous, or having taken strong medications of amphetamines, drugs like methamphetamine, taken too many caffeinated drinks like ‘Red Bull’, or other drugs that induced hyperactivity or tension.

If, however, the figure shoots above 350K, then the person can be intoxicated on certain drugs or medication that induced calmness, or fatigue because the person does not have sufficient sleep. In this case, the examinee will be extremely calm. In any of these cases, tests or examinations shouldn’t be conducted.

GSR’s basic ‘phasic’ phase is the influx of blood, sweat, and heat. Hence, the conductivity increases the amplitude of the graph in the order of its significance. GSR graphs will denote activity of deception if the amplitudes suddenly increase and enlarge as it progresses from the baseline.

Now, examinees may cause false reactions by way of forced inhalations, movements, tongue or cheek biting, and so the more it is better to be knowledgeable in these areas and warn them as a countermeasure. One of the ways to better prepare examinees to counter various ways of deception is to give a pre-test pep talk or behavioral instructions, as I have said earlier in this essay. This pep talk has to be given after the examinee has fill out a consent form (to be polygraphed).

Finally, about the GSR, unlike the Lafayette GSR, the Rubicon should be loosely fastened and importantly the flesh should touch the sensitive metal parts. If the GSR sensors are tightened too tight, the graphs will become pulsating and inaccurate. As for the Lafayette, the sensors have to be tightened tightly and on the left hand as the right hand is used for the cardiovascular device.


Lafayette uses the cardiovascular device to measure blood flow and heart activity. The Rubicon’s answer to this is two devices, that are, the PPG (Photoplethysmography) and the ARP (Arterial Reaction Pressure). In essence, the Rubicon’s methodology is more positive.

The PPG registers the optimal density of a heart beat rate; the rising systolic is indicative of the blood volume flowing and the descending of the graph to the baseline is diastolic indicative of relaxation. In the event of physiological intoxication, there will be constant displaying of dicrotic waves. If the examinee has difficulty breathing when the PPG’s amplitudes are narrowing, the examiner may want to query about his health concerns. Likewise, if the amplitudes become expanded and enlarging, it meant that there’s a decrease of blood flowing. There may be a health concern as if the blood vessels are narrowing. I don’t wish to indicate the symptom but it’s best for the examiner to query the examinee about his health or else reschedule the examinee’s appointment and at the next appointment ask him to produce a medical report from a physician or doctor. In this instance, its similar to the dicrotic wave that the expanded amplitudes or waves have to be constantly expanding.


The ARP displays the pressure of blood running along the arteries. The amplitudes looked slightly jaded on the edges but not much and it also depends from individual to individual. The most important thing is again the amplitudes have to be constant. However, if the amplitude shows spikes it indicates movements or the examinee is contracting his muscles on his arm. In this case, the examiner has to warn the examinee. However, if it’s deliberate on relevant questions then it’s an indication of cheating or the examinee feels strained at the question. Sometimes it’s not deliberate because the physiology of the body depends on our cognition and hence, the CNS will trigger itself naturally as either a sign of defensive mechanism or just feel to object a question being asked. As compared to the Lafayette or other Western systems, the spikes indicate that the pressure on the cuff strap is being too tightly worn. In this case, the examinee is uncomfortable. That’s why for the Lafayette system the subjects have to be constantly asked to relax during the short breaks and stretches his hands. In contrast, the ARP device need not be strapped tightly and the examinee does not feel strained in wearing it.


TRM or tremors basically monitors movements from the emitted from the physiological system, especially the arms, hands, legs, feet, gait sways or ticks. On the screen, the graph itself is pretty baselined and flat. Unless there’s a slight movement, other than that, it’s more of a countermeasure and to ensure decorum and discipline on the examinee to obey, behave, and be motionless. If the examiner detects a movement, he should very well warn the examinee. However, if its deliberately done on a relevant question then perhaps there could be a certain activity whether could be deliberate or deceptive. Hence, the examiner has to be sure to appropriate techniques to counter these.  If it’s an anomaly and when the examinee cannot sit still or restless, then it’s appropriate to warn him of his impending actions and the ultimate result he may end up with. Thus far to my own experience, and even to subjects I experimented, most will do it properly.


MCP is voice activated recordings. It not only records but actually its duality here is pretty much like a voice stress analysis (VSA). MCP only measures the tone of the voice. When the individual is talking naturally, his voice tone is the normal tone. So when he’s stressed, his voice will change in accordance to the modes of the questions asked. Some examinees may tend to respond softly as if they thought audibleness can deflect a measure, so if in this case, the examiner can repeat the question and inform the examinee to respond appropriately. However, if it’s audibly louder all of a sudden, then perhaps the strain in the voice noted activity. Again, in this instance, the examiner has to check with the other relevant graphs.


Methodologies of Detection

Like any detection techniques there are always two techniques of methodologies to apply side by side. One is the equipment or device and in this case the Rubicon. The other is the questionnaires to be formulated.

1) The Rubicon Way

Within the Rubicon system you have the Rubicon amplification system that consists of 7 ± 2 Channels. So these channels that have been discussed earlier are the RS1, RS2, GSR, PPG, ARP, TRM, and MCP. And these 7 channels of input are connected to the Rubicon amplification system that will consolidate all the signals and send them to a laptop or desktop. Of course the laptop or desktop requires to have a software program. This program is called the Sheriff 6 MU.

The Rubicon apparatus of each device, that is, the PB1, PB2, GSR…etc., are pretty easy to apply. Unlike the Lafayette, an examiner has to ensure that the device of each instrumentations are correctly strapped and tightened. As for the case of a Rubicon system, it is adjusted on the software itself within the settings. Once everything is aligned correctly, view the tonic phase to see whether there are any oddities as I have discussed about the tonic phase. If the variations indicate intoxication, calmness, or hyperactivities, the procedure is terminated and concluded. And after seeing the graphs have been stabilized, initiate the test. That’s where the next part is important and without the next part of this methodology it’s pointless.

2) Questionnaires, Probing, and Responses

This is the most important part of the process. How’s done is importantly the determination and success of any polygraph process. The equipment and software apparatus only monitors and gauge. The questions are there to solicit memory, experience, and knowledge of the individual. Hence, it’s very crucial what kinds of questions to ask and the way how the questions are structured.

The Lafayette system only deters examiners on using certain language and words that may be a hindrance to the system’s objectivity in detecting deception. Words like “steal”, “rape”, “robbery”, “assault”, “murder”, etc., are forbidden. As a replacement of those ineligible words, the examiners have to use, “remove”, or in a phrase like “do you have sex…”, “did you go in and take…”, “did you injure…”, “did you cause the death…”, etc. However, the Western use of the polygraph do not prohibit questionnaires on financial stance, wealth or income stature, etc., or personal habits and lifestyles. However, the Western techniques call for transparency. That is, the questionnaires have to be shown to the examinee.


In Ukraine, the questioning techniques are very different from the Western way of using the questionnaires.

The Ukrainian methodology are divided into three areas of preparation for questioning.

There’s the 1) unified approach; 2) specified multi-topical approach; and lastly 3) single original topic approach.

а) The unified approach

This approach examines the examinee’s routine of activities that he is currently undergoing like work, training, weekend marketing, dating, travelling, recreational activities, hobbies, etc. This information is more secondary than the background information or data provided before the polygraph examination. At this stage, it’s the understanding of the examinee’s role in respect to the current and immediate environment and situation.

b) The specified multi-topical approach 

This approach is to clarify and verify the intent of the examinee. The intention here is the knowledge and experience surrounding the examinee. The color, the distance, the time of the day, how many people are there, etc. The essence of the word “multi-topical” acknowledge the complexities that surrounded the issue, and hence, the cognitive understanding of the individual. If the person knows or have firsthand knowledge, then his answers are confident without any aforethought.

c) The specified single topic approach

This last approach is a probing methodology. In the West, this is called ‘relevancy’ or ‘relevant’ questions. Its intention is just 1 or couple of specified topics to verify the knowledge or experience of the examinee in regards to the event. The question itself is circumscribed or narrow to the extent that the response will gauge only the answer to that question.


Once the examiner is comfortable approaches next he needs to enhance the topics in another 3 methodologies. So with the above the approaching methodologies, the next secondary refinement questionnaire techniques revolve around a series of (I) Battery Questionnaires; this can be in block questions on a particular subject or issue. Most times these (battery of) questions are (II) Indirect; the impetus of these indirect questions is to purvey the knowledge and experience of the individual. It’s not meant to probe, well at least, not yet. Like for example, the question on the location of the incident can be categorized into the locality or the landmark of the place of the incident. The purpose of these block questions are to cue the cognitive and physiological inputs. Hence, if the tendency is deceptive activity in response that block of questions, then more similarly will be introduced to see how much the examinee is aware of the incident. Again, probing is not the purpose here.  However, after a few block questionnaires and the examiner is satisfied with activity towards deception then he can optimize the questions by doing a presentation or probing questions.  Block questionnaires shouldn’t be more than five questions and it generally begins with a neutral question. Finally, (III) the Presentation or Probing Questionnaire is one that ‘interrogates’ the examinee. The word in Ukraine is “Presentation” and perhaps there’s a ring of humanity to it. A good solid example of such a question is, “Do you kill the victim?” So after the series of battery test, the physiology garners several responses already and when the surprise questionnaire is “presented”, more activities will be generated by the physiological system of the examinee, because the “presented” shock engages the physiology of our body to respond, even if we tend to shy away with a negative response. As this is a normal article, again I don’t wish to give away the techniques, and like everyone else, and if you are as interested as I am, you have to sign up with the UPA to undergo the training.


I wouldn’t say I aced my training, but my trainers were satisfied with my drive and the willingness to put in the effort to learn. As my evaluation approaches, I had to double down as well because my trainers were trying to input me as much as possible and at the same time trying to cover all necessary syllabus. Yes, every day, when I returned to my apartment, I was not only tired but drained as well. So if you learn hard, and determine to get what you require, you will get it and your investment for this education will be a guaranteed success. In the end, the day of the evaluation, my trainers were more concerned about my abilities to feedback to them and as a foreigner, they knew the challenges I was facing.


Spending a month in the cold weather in Ukraine where the weather is always grey and in the morning thick mist enmeshed large parts of Kyiv is a new experience for me.

I had even brought a Canon camera that I didn’t even bother to use because the cold would numb my fingers, often, and I tried to use my cellphone which has excellent lens as a substitute. One thing I observed is that, Ukrainians looked sad, and perhaps troubled. I am not sure why, but many of them are very helpful, kind, and resourceful. Even when the metro trains are fully packed, Ukrainians are seldom rude and would only voice their resentment in a polite way.

Many Ukrainians are desperate for European integration and leave Russia. Despite the troubles, Ukraine and Russia should reconcile and cooperate. It’s good for Eastern Europeans to form a united polygraphy system, a system that’s distinctive, perhaps superior than the ones in the Western world.

I have said my peace to all my friends, trainers, and once that recognized me as a resourceful person in the international arena for Ukrainian Polygraphy. With that, I would like to say ‘Dyakuyu’ from the bottom of my heart.

#вапнавчає